Classification Of Electric Vehicles

The Electric vehicles run solely on electric motors which can be either powered by a battery, ICe or Fuel cells. Many think what might be the classification of electric vehicles be like? The common population and the specialists have classified the electric vehicles, which is also widely accepted.

Therefore, Classification of Electric vehicles are;

  1. Battery electric vehicle
  2. Hybrid electric vehicle
  3. Fuel cell electric vehicle


Electric vehicles which uses only batteries for propulsion of the vehicle are known as battery electric vehicles. As the sole energy of the vehicle is got through the batteries the mileage or range of the BEV is directly proportional to the battery capacity. So we usually find the BEV having lesser range than that of other electric vehicles. The main issue of the BEV is that once the battery is completely discharged it takes a lot of time to get recharged, which is incomparable to the conventional filling of fuel in ICe vehicles.

Battery Electric vehicle
BEV Configuration

The charging time of BEVs depends solely on the type of charging solution used and its operating level. The BEVs are best suited for the urban riding as the vehicle needs to be operated at low speed and high torque with frequent start and stops. And moreover, there is no greenhouse gas emitted, no noise and in return is good for the environment. Some of the best selling BEVs are tesla, Nissan leaf and some Chinese branded vehicles.


The hybrid electric vehicles are the type of EVs where the ICe is used as main source of propulsion and the motor serves as secondary source of propulsion for cruising at low speeds, revering the vehicles and even in some implementations it is used for additional torque provider. The mild and full HEVs use the ICe to provide the power source to the motors while the plug-in HEVs work as partial BEVs equipped with an ICe.

Hybrid Electric vehicle
Hybrid EV Configuration

In most cases the manufacturer use the engine to run the vehicle like a normal ICe vehicle but, when there is requirement of additional power and torque the motor kicks in along with the engine to provide the power and torque required. In many implementation the motor is also used to reduce the turbo lag. The battery in HEVs is also charged up by the regenerative braking.

While in Plug-in electric vehicles the battery is charged as the normal BEVs and the ICe is used as range extender.

In some cases there is also implementation of regenerative braking.


Fuel cell electric vehicles get its name from the source of energy it uses to generate electricity i.e, fuel cells. The hydrogen is used as the fuel cell to generate electricity. The hydrogen is stored in a special pressurized tank and it undergoes chemical reaction with oxygen which is sucked from the atmosphere. The by-product of the chemical reaction is water which makes it eco-friendly. The generated electricity is directly supplied to the motor and the excess electricity is stored either in batteries or super capacitors.

Fuel Cell Electric vehicle
Fuel cell EV Configuration

This implementation of EV can be seen in future, because the cost of generating hydrogen is very high. In comparison to the normal ICe vehicles the cost is approximately 4-5 times higher. The cheap, sustainable and eco-friendly way of producing hydrogen is yet to be found. Until then the FCEV might not be manufactured as commercial vehicles. The present concept vehicles based on FCEV is Pininfarina’s H2 Speed.

fuel cel electric vehicle : Pininfarina’s H2 Speed
Pininfarina’s H2 Speed

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